Who Were the Bankers at Bretton Woods?

The U.N. 1944 Bretton Woods Conference established an international monetary system governed by the United Nations. Who attended? Only about 14 delegates were elected representatives. Bureaucrats, royalty, business magnates, and a multitude of private bankers represented 44 countries.

NOTE: Harry Dexter White was the Father of the United Nations monetary system adopted at Bretton Woods [called The White Plan]. White was the Assistant to the U.S. Treasury Secretary. His vision for United Nations government was a socialist model of economic central planning.

In 1944, Harry Dexter White wrote: “…the change will be in the direction of increased control over industry, and increased restrictions on the operations of competition and free enterprise.”  

The FBI identified Harry Dexter White as the highest ranking espionage agent in the United States in 1948. In the 1990s, his guilt was established by declassified Soviet documents; a Senate Committee chaired by Daniel Patrick Moynihan declared the evidence to be conclusive: “The complicity of Alger Hiss of the State Department seems settled. As does that of Harry Dexter White of the Treasury Department.” The quotations are from Harry Dexter White’s unpublished essay, “Political-Economic Int. of Future,” Princeton archives, 1944; and the Moynihan Commission on Government Secrecy, Wash. D.C., 1997; Daily Mail U.K., #2288294.

The following excerpts are from the first-ever list of the conferees at the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, July 1 – 22, 1944:

AUSTRALIA
Chair: Leslie Galfreid Melville, Adv, Commonwealth Bank of Australia; IMF Exec Dir; World Bank Exec Dir; Alt IMF Gov
Frederick Henry Wheeler (knighted)
Arthur Harold Tange (knighted)

BELGIUM
Chair: Camille Gutt, Min Fin; IMF Gov; IMF Exec Dir; 1st IMF Mng Dir
Georges Émile Léonard Theunis Gov, National Bank of Belgium
Baron Hervé de Gruben, IMF Alt Gov
Baron René Boël, Banker, Industrialist; Delegate, 1st del IMF/ World Bank mtg
Joseph Nisot, Legal Adv, Emb, NY
Boris Serge Chlepner, Prof
Ernest de Selliers de Moranville, Attaché, Emb, WA; IMF Alt Dir, IMF Exec Dir; World Bank Alt Exec Dir

BOLIVIA
Chair: René Ballivián Calderón, Counsel, Emb, WA; Pres, Banco Industrial de Bolivia

BRAZIL
Chair: Artur de Souza Costa, Min Fin; Adv to Pres Francisco Alves dos Santos Filho, Dir, Forex, Banco do Brasil; IMF Gov; World Bank Gov; later IMF Exec Dir
Valentim Fernandes Bouças, Wealthy Businessman, Adv to Pres, Comm of Control for WA Agreements
Eugênio Gudin, Mmbr Fin Council; World Bank Gov
Octávio Gouvea de Bulhões, Chief, Min Fin; IMF Alt Exec Dir
Victor Azevedo Bastian, Dir, Banco da Provincia do Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil – London Bank)
Zeuxis Ferreira Neves, Asst to Counsel, Emb, WA
Charles Freligh, Emb, WA Santiago Fernandes, Banco do Brasil
R. R. Vieira, Treas Del, NY Aguinaldo Boulitreau Fragoso, Asst to For Aff Min
Daniel Maximo Martins, Sec to Fin Min

CANADA
Chair: James Lorimer Ilsley, Min Fin; Parliament (1926-1948); IMF Gov, World Bank Gov
Louis Stephen St. Laurent, Min Justice; P.M. (1948-1957)
Douglas Charles Abbott, Parliament; World Bank Gov
Lionel Chevrier, Parl Asst to Min Munitions
Joseph-Adéodat Blanchette, Parliament
Walter Adam Tucker, Parliament
William Clifford Clark, Dep Min Fin; Alt Gov, World Bank
Graham Ford Towers, Gov, Bank of Canada; Alt Gov, IMF; Alt Gov, World Bank
William Archibald Mackintosh, Asst to Dep Min of Fin;  Dir, Bank of Canada
Louis Rasminsky, Chair, Forex Control Bd; IMF Exec Dir; Exec Dir, World Bank; Alt Gov, IMF; Gov, Bank of Canada
Wynne Plumptre, Attaché, Emb, WA; Alt Gov, World Bank; IMF Exec Dir
John James Deutsch, Asst to Under Sec State; Alt Gov, World Bank

CHILE
Chair: Luis Álamos Barros, Dir, Central Bank of Chile
Germán E. Riesco, Rep, Chilean Line, NY
Arturo Maschke Tornero, Gen Mngr, Central Bank of Chile; Pres, Central Bank of Chile
Fernando Mardones Restat, Nitrate/Iodine Sales Corp
Alfonso Fernández Martorell, Gen Mngr, Amortization Bank of Chile
Carmen Señoret, Sec, Consul, Boston
Frank Ledesma, Sec to Chair of Delegation
Hermann Max Coers, Adv, Central Bank of Chile

CHINA
Chair: Hsiang-Hsi, Vice Pres Exec Yuan; Gov, Central Bank of China
Tingfu Fuller Tsiang, Permnt U.N. Rep; Amb to US; Chief, Exec
Yuan Ping-Wen Kuo, Vice Min of Fin
Victor Chi-Tsai Hoo, Vice Min of For Aff; Sec Gen Chinese Del, UN Conf; UN Commiss; UN Sec Gen (1955-1962)
Yee-Chun Koo, Fin Min; IMF Exec Dir; IMF Treasurer
Kuo-Ching Li, Adv, Min of Fin; Gen Mngr, Wah Chang Trading Corp, NY
Te-Mou Hsi, Min of Fin Rep in WA; World Bank Alt Exec Dir
Tsu-Yee Pei, Dir, Bank of China
Ts-Liang Soong, Gen Mngr, Manufacturers Bank of China; World Bank Alt Gov
Hu Shih, Amb to US
Kia-Ngau Chang, High Adv, Exec Yuan; Dep Gov, Central Bank of China
Ming Li, Chair, Chekiang Industrial Bank
Ting-Sen Wei, Leg Yuan Sec Gen
Chao-Ting Chi, Sec Gen Forex Control, Central Bank of China
Y.C. Wang, Central Bank of China; IMF off
Cho-Ming Li, Prof, Southwestern Ass Univ
Kunming Chih Tsang, Dir, Shanghai Commercial and Savings Bank
C. L. Hsia, Adv to For Aff Min; UN Rep
Yu-Chung Hsi, Sec, Min of Fin in WA
Shun-Hsin Chou, Central Bank of China
C.T. Yen, Dir, Central Bank of China
Yen-Tsu Chen, Sec, Central Bank of China
Daniel S.K. Chang, Sec, Central Bank of China
Ping-Yeh Tcheng, Sec, Central Trust of China
Bing-Shuey Lee, Fst Sec, Emb, WA
Kien-Wen Yu, Sec Sec, Emb, WA
I.C. Sung, Asst Treas, Universal Trading Corp
Wan-Sen Lo, Sec Min of Fin WA
Ta-Chung Liu, Emb, WA; IMF off, Prof, Cornell Univ
Arthur Nichols Young, Fin Adv, Chinese Govt; American citizen; Adv, Saudi Arabian monetary reform; bro of John Young, Conf Secretariat

COLOMBIA
Chair: Carlos Lleras Restrepo, Min of Fin
Miguel López Pumarejo, Bank Mngr, Caja de Crédito Agrario, Industrial y Minero; Amb to U.S.-bro of Alfonso López Pumarejo, Pres of Colombia
Victor Dugand, Banker
Antonio Puerto, Banker
Salvador Camacho Roldán, Banker, Bogotá Stock Exchange

COSTA RICA
Chair: Francisco de Paula Gutiérrez Ross, Amb to US
Luis Demetrio Tinoco Castro, Dean, Univ Costa Rica
Fernando Madrigal A., Bd, Chamb of Comm
Coun: José Rafaël Oreamuno Flores, Inter-American Devlpmnt Comm; Amb to US

CUBA
Chair: Eduardo I. Montoulieu, Min of Fin
Oscar García Montes, Prof, Univ of Havana; Min of Fin
Ramiro Guerra y Sánchez, Adviser, Min of Fin
Miguel A. Pirez, Asst to Min of Fin
Juan M. Menocal, Prof, Univ of Havana; Adv to P.M. Felipe Pazos y Roque, Attaché, Emb, WA; IMF off; Pres, Banco Nacional de Cuba; Alliance for Progress and Inter-American Development Bank off
Luis Machado, Lawyer; Exec Dir, World Bank; Amb to US; World Bank Gov
Eduardo Durruthy, Dir Gen, Fin Min
Calixto Montoulieu, wife of Eduardo Montoulieu
Tech Sec: Irving Gordon

CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Chair: Ladislav Karel Feierabend, Min of Fin Dep Chair:
Jan Viktor Mládek, Min of Fin; Exec Dir, IMF; Gov, IMF; sr IMF off, head IMF Paris; Dir, Central Banking Service
Antonín Basch, Prof, Columbia Univ; Czechoslovak National Bank off; Chief Economist, World Bank
Josef Hanč, Dir, Eco Serv US; Consul NY; Alt Gov, World Bank; Emb, WA
Ervin Paul Hexner, Prof, Univ North Carolina; IMF Sr Coun
Ernest Sturc, Czechoslovak Eco Serv US; IMF Dir, Dept Exch/Trade Rela

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Chair: Anselmo Copello, Amb to US; Dir, Banco de Reservas de la República Dominicana
Roberto Despradel, Coun, Emb WA
José Ramón Rodriguez, Coun, Emb WA; Alt Gov, World Bank
José Mariano Sanz Lajara, Sec, Emb WA

ECUADOR
Chair: Esteban F. Carbo, Counselor, Emb WA; Mngr, Banco Central del Ecuador; IMF Gov; World Bank Gov; Alt Exe Dir, World Bank
Sixto Enrique Durán Ballén, Emb WA; Alt Gov, World Bank

EGYPT
Chair: Sany Lackany Bey Mahmoud Saleh el Falaky, Alt Exec Dir, IMF; Alt Gov, IMF; Alt Gov, World Bank
Ahmed Selim, IMF Alt Gov; World Bank Alt Gov
James I. Craig, Min of Fin; British subject
Leon Dichy Technical Sec

EL SALVADOR
Chair: Agustín Alfaro Morán, coffee plantation owner; Dir, Banco Central de Reserva de El Salvador

ETHIOPIA
Chair: Blatta Ephrem
Tewelde Medhen, US Amb Del:
George Albert Blowers, Gov, State Bank of Ethiopia; American citizen; IMF Gov; World Bank Gov; Gov, Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority

FRANCE (French Committee of National Liberation)
Chair: Pierre Mendès France, Min of Econ; IMF Gov; IMF Exec Dir; World Bank Alt Gov; World Bank Exec Dir
André Istel, Dept of Fin; prominent banker
Jean Rioust de Largentaye, Insp of Fin; Alt Exec Dir, IMF; Exec Dir, IMF
André Paul Maury Robert Mossé, Prof, New School for Social Research, NY

GREECE
Chair: Kyriakos Varvaressos, Gov, Bank of Greece; Exec Dir, World Bank Athanase
Ioannou Sbarounis, Min Fin; World Bank Gov
Alexander Loverdos, Min Fin; Alt Gov, IMF; Alt Gov, World Bank; Head, Eco Research, NY
André Papandreou, P.M. (1981-1989, 1993-1996)

GUATEMALA
Chair: Manuel Noriega Morales, Postgrad, Harvard Univ; Gov, IMF; Gov, World Bank; Gov, Bank of Guatemala

HAITI
Chair: André Liautaud, Amb to US (1943)
Pierre Chauvet, Under Sec of Fin; UN Del

HONDURAS
Chair: Julián R. Cáceres, US Amb; IMF Gov, World Bank Gov
Hernán Benegas

ICELAND
Chair: Magnús Sigurðsson, Mngr, National Bank of Iceland; Gov, World Bank
Ásgeir Ásgeirsson, Fishery Bank of Iceland; P.M.; Pres (1952-1968)
Þórhallur Ásgeirsson, Perm Sec, Min of Comm; son of Ásgeir Ásgeirsson
Svanbjörn Frímannsson, Chair, State Commerce Board; National Bank of Iceland; Gov, Central Bank of Iceland

INDIA
Chair: Sir Jeremy Raisman, Fin Min; British subject
Sir Theodore Emanuel Guggenheim Gregory, Adv; Prof, London School of Economics; British subject
Sir Chintaman Dwarakanath Deshmukh, Gov, Reserve Bank of India; IMF Gov; World Bank Gov
Sir Ramasamy Chetty
Kandasamy Shanmukham Chetty, 1st Fin Min
Ardeshir Darabshaw Shroff, Dir, Tata Sons, Ltd.
Sir David Burnett Meek, Adv; Trade Comm London; British subject
Bal Krishna Madan, Asst. Adv; Alt Exec Dir, IMF; Alt Exec Dir, World Bank; Exec Dir, IMF; Alt Gov, IMF; Dep Gov, Reserve Bank of India

IRAN
Chair: Abol Hassan Ebtehaj, Gov, National Bank of Iran; IMF Gov; World Bank Gov; Dir: Middle East Dept of IMF
Ali Akbar Daftary, Counsel, WA
Hossein Navab, Consul Gen, NY
Taghi Nassr, Iranian Trade/ Eco Comm, NY

IRAQ
Chair: Ibrahim Kamal, Senator
Ali Al-Ayyubi Jawdat, WA Amb Is
Ibrahim Al-Kabir, Acct Gen, Min of Fin
Lionel Maynard Swan British subject (Adv to Fin Min)
Claude E. Loombe, Comptroller of Exchange; British subject; was Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China; Reserve Bank of India

LIBERIA
Chair: William E. Dennis, Sr., Sec of Treas
James F. Cooper, Sec of Treasury
Walter F. Walker, Consul Gen, NY
Secretary: K. Jefferies Adorkor, Jr.

LUXEMBOURG
Chair: Hugues Le Gallais, US Amb; IMF Alt Gov; Alt Exec Dir, IMF; Alt Gov, World Bank

MEXICO
Chair: Eduardo Suárez Aranzolo, Treaury Sec
Antonio Espinosa de los Monteros, Exec Pres, Nacional Financiera Bank; Amb to US; Dir,  Dir, Banco de México; IMF Gov, World Bank Gov
Rodrigo Gómez Gómez, Mngr, Banco de México; IMF Exec Dir; Alt Gov, IMF; Gov, IMF; Dir Gen, Banco de México
Daniel Cosío Villegas, Dir, Banco de México; Pres, UN Eco/ Soc Cncl
Salvador Duhart W., Sec, Emb, WA
Julián Sáenz Hinojosa, Consul, NY
Víctor Luis Urquidi Bingham, Banco de México

NETHERLANDS
Chair: Johan Willem Beyen (Adv) Dir, UNILEVER; Alt to Pres, Bank for International Settlements (1935-1937); Pres, Bank for International Settlements (1937-1939); Exec Dir, World Bank
Daniël Crena de Iongh, Pres, Bd for Netherlands Indies, Surinam, Curaçao in US; Pres, Netherlands Trading Co (Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij); IMF Alt Exec Dir; Exec Dir, World Bank; IMF Treas; World Bank Treas; IMF Exec Dir; World Bank Exec Dir
Hendrik Riemens, Attaché, Emb, WA
Adriaan Hendrik Philipse, Netherlands Economic, Financial, and Shipping Mission in US
A. Andriesse, Banker
Anton Dirk Bestebreurtje, Pres, Netherlands Chamb of Comm in NY, Inc.
Jacques Jacobus Polak, Netherlands Economic, Financial, and Shipping Mission in US; League of Nations off; Sr IMF off; IMF Exec Dir (1947- 1986)
C.H. Schoch, Netherlands – Indies Exchange Control, Adv to Chair
J. Jerome Williams, Emb, WW I.H. Capriles, Mngr, Maduro & Curiel’s Bank
W.J.A. de Heer, Sec, Netherlands Antilles Forex Comm
Aron Broches, Sec, World Bank, Gen Coun

NEW ZEALAND
Chair: Walter Nash, Min of Fin; PM (1957-1960); (knighted 1965)
Bernard Carl Ashwin, Treas Sec; Chair, Eco Stabilization Comm; (knighted 1956)
Edward Coldham Fussell, Dep Gov, Reserve Bank of New Zealand; Gov, Reserve Bank of New Zealand
Allan George Barnard Fisher, Coun, WA; IMF off, Ed IMF Staff Pprs
Bruce R. Turner, Sec Sec, Adv, WA

NICARAGUA
Chair: Guillermo Sevilla Sacasa, Amb to US; Gov, World Bank
León DeBayle Sacasa, Lawyer, Banco Nacional de Nicaragua; Amb to US
J. Jesús Sánchez Roig, Vice Chair, Banco Nacional de Nicaragua; Gov, World Bank; Dir, Banco Nacional de Nicaragua

NORWAY
Chair: Wilhelm Christian Ottesen Keilhau, Dir, Bank of Norway – London (Norges Bank)
Ole Colbjørnsen, Embassy, WA; Dir, Norges Bank (Bank of Norway); Alt Gov, IMF; Alt Gov, World Bank
Arne Skaug, Emb, WA; Asst Prof, Univ Wisconsin; World Bank Gov
Kaare Petersen (Adv), Norwegian Shipping & Trade Mission NY; U.N.
Torfinn Oftedal, Emb, WA

PANAMA
Chair: Augusto Guillermo Arango, Pres, Investors Service Corp of Panama; Amb to US
Narciso E. Garay, Jr. Sec, Emb, WA

PARAGUAY
Chair: Celso R. Velázquez, Amb to US
Néstor M. Campos Ros, Emb, WA

PERU
Chair: Pedro Gerardo Beltrán Espantoso, des Amb to US; Fst Vice Pres, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú
Manuel B. Llosa, Second Vice Pres, Chamb Deps
Andrés Francisco Dasso Hoke, Lima Senator
Alberto Alvarez Calderón, Lima Senator
Juvenal Monge, Cuzco Deputy; Prof, Natl School of Engineering
Juan Chávez Dartnell, Couns, Emb, WA
Emilio G. Barreto Latzeh, Adv [Pres], Banco Central de Reserva del Perú
Alvaro Rey de Castro, Thrd Sec, Emb, WA

COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINES
Chair: Colonel Andrés Soriano y Roxas, Sec of Fin, Ag, Comm
Jaime Hernandez, Aud Gen; Prof, Far Eastern Univ
Joseph H. Foley, Mngr, Philippine National Bank, NY Agency; American citizen; IMF Alt Gov; World Bank Alt Gov
Ismael Mathay, Sr., Asst to Aud Gen, Comm Budg/Fin

POLAND
Chair: Ludwik Grosfeld, Min of Fin Leon Baránski , Dir Gen, Bank of Poland; Exec Dir, World Bank; first Gov, Central Bank of Kenya
Zygmunt Karpinski, Dir, Bank of Poland; Alt Exec Dir, IMF
Stanisław Kirkor, Dir, Min of Fin
Janusz Zółtowski, Emb, WA; Alt Gov, World Bank
Michal Angelo Heilperin, Assoc. Prof, Hamilton College
Władysław Roman Malinowski, Emb, WA; UN Sec (instrumental in founding UN Conf on Trade/ Devel)
Gustaw Gottesman, Sec to Min of Fin

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
Chair: S. Frank N. Gie, Min to US
John Edward Holloway, Fin Sec; Prof, Gray University College; Alt Gov, IMF; Alt Gov, World Bank; Amb to US; IMF Gov; World Bank Gov
Michiel Hendrik de Kock, Dep Gov, South African Reserve Bank; Alt Gov, World Bank; Gov, South African Reserve Bank; World Bank Gov
Willem Christiaan Naudé, Adv Attaché, WA; Amb to US

UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR)
People’s Commissariat for Foreign Trade (PCFT) Chair: Mikhail Stepanovich Stepanov, PCFT Comm
Pavel Andreyevich Maletin, Fin Comm
Nikolai Fyodorovich Chechulin, State Bank of the USSR, Dep Pres
Ivan Danilovich Zlobin, PCFT Chief, Mon Div
A.A. Arutiunian, Prof; PCFT Del, UN Eco/ Soc Coun; Chief Del, UN Eco Comm Europe
A.P. Morozov, PCFT Chief, Mon Div
Aleksei Mikhailovich Smirnov, Prof, Inst Foreign Trade
P.I. Titov, N.S. Ivanov, A.V. Borisov, L.M. Andreev, M.A. Chekmarev, N.I. Kuznetzov, N.K. Panchenko, Mrs. L.J. Gouseva,
M.M. Idashkin, PCFT Adv
Fedor Petrovich Bystrov, Prof, Institute of Foreign Trade

UNITED KINGDOM
Chair: Lord John Maynard Keynes, Adv Chanc of Exch; Dir, Bank of England; (Baron Keynes of Tilton 1942); Gov, IMF; Gov, World Bank; V P, World Bank
Hon. Robert Henry Brand, Treas Rep WA; Mng Dir, Lazard Brothers and Co; Dir; Lloyd’s Bank; (Baron Brand of Eydon); Alt Gov, IMF; Alt Gov, World Bank
Sir Wilfrid Griffin Eady, Joint Sec Sec; Head, Overseas Fin, UK Treas
Nigel Bruce Ronald, Asst Under Sec St FoR Affairs; (knighted)
Dennis Holme Robertson, Treas (2nd to Keynes) Cambridge Univ; (knighted)
Lionel Charles Robbins, Cabinet; Prof, London School of Economics; (Baron Robbins of Clare Market Redvers Opie), Couns, Emb, WA
Eric Beckett, chief legal expert, (knighted 1948)
George Lewis French Bolton, Adv, Bank of England; IMF Alt Gov, Exec Dir, IMF; Bank of England Dir, Exec Dir, Bank of England; (knighted)
Charles H. Campbell, 1st Sec, Emb, WA
John W. Russell, 2nd Sec, Emb, WA
Ralph H. Thomas, 2nd Sec, Emb, WA Secretaries
H.E. Brooks, UK Treas
Arthur Wendell Snelling, Dominions Off, (knighted)
Richard T.G. Miles, 3rd Sec, Emb, WA; Adv, Br Del to UN
Additional: Lydia Lopokova, Baroness Keynes

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Chair: Henry Morgenthau, Jr., Treas Sec (1934-1945)
Vice Chair: Frederick Moore Vinson, Dir, Off Eco Stab; Treas Sec (1945-1946); IMF Gov, World Bank Gov
Dean Gooderham Acheson, Asst Sec St; Acting Treas Sec (1933); Sec St (1949-1953); drafter World Bank agrmnt
Edward Eagle Brown, Pres, Fed Adv Coun, (drafter World Bank agrmnt); Pres, First National Bank of Chicago; Federal Reserve Board of Governors
Leo Thomas Crowley, Admin, For Eco Admin: Alien Prop Admin; Chair, Fed Dep Ins Corp
Marriner Stoddard Eccles, Chair, Federal Reserve Board of Governors
Mabel Newcomer, Prof, Vassar College
Brent Spence, House of Reps, Chair, House Comm Bnkg/Currency
Charles William Tobey, Senate; Senate Comm Bnkg/ Currency
Robert Ferdinand Wagner, Sr., Senate; Chair, Comm Bnkg/Currency
Harry Dexter White, Asst to Treas Sec; chief WWII monetary negotiator; Asst Treas Sec; IMF Exec Dir (1946-1947); member of spy cell
Jesse Paine Wolcott, House of Reps; House Comm Bnkg/Currency
Foreign Eco Admin: James Waterhouse Angell, Adv (a drafter of World Bank agrmnt), Prof, Columbia Univ
Dept of Treas, Asst Dir: Edward Morris Bernstein, Exec Sec Del (3rd most important contributor to conf) Dir, IMF Research
Malcolm Bryan,* 1st VP, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta
Dept of St, Fin/Mon Aff: Emilio Gabriel Collado, drafter World Bank agrmnt; World Bank Exec Dir
Henry H. Edmiston, VP, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
Walter Gardner, Federal Reserve Board of Govs; drafter World Bank agrmnt
Emanuel Alexandrovich Goldenweiser, Dir, Federal Reserve Board of Govs, Pres, Amer Stats Assn; influential Fed off
Alvin Harvey Hansen, Federal Reserve Board of Govs; Prof, Harvard Univ (intro’d Keynesian economics)
Dept of St, Eco Aff: Frederick Livesey, Adv
Walter Clinton Louchheim, Jr., off Sec/Exch Comm
Dept of Comm: William Maffry, VP, Export-Import Bank; consult, Eco Coop Admin (Marshall Plan)
Dept of Treas: Norman T. Ness, sr St Dept off
Dept of St: Leo S. Pasvolsky, drafter UN Charter
Warren Lee Pierson, Pres, Export-Import Bank
Chauncey William Reed, House of Reps; Comm Coinage/Weights/Measures
Andrew Lawrence Somers, House of Reps; Chair, Comm Coinage/Weights/Measures
Menc Stephen Szymczak, Federal Reserve Board of Govs, (1933-1961)
Dept of Treas: Ansel Frank Luxford, Chief Adv; World Bank
Gen Coun Benjamin V. Cohen, Gen Coun, War Mobilization
Dept of St: John G. Winant, Couns
For Eco Admin: Oscar Sydney Cox
Ethan B. Stroud, VP, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Sec Gen
Treas Del: Charles Stewart Bell, Henrietta Stein Klotz, Margaret McHugh, M. Frederik Smith, Arthur Sweetser (League of Nations)
UN Secretaries Elting Arnold*, Inter-American Development Bank
Richard B. Brenner,* IMF Asst Gen Coun Isador Lubin, UN Eco Council, UN Comm; Labor Stats, Eco. Employment Comm
George F. Luthringer, IMF Alt Exec Dir; IMF Dir of Far East/Middle East, Latin Amer Dept; IMF Dir of W Hem
Dept Treas, Foreign Assets Control: Emanuel E. Minskoff
Joseph P. Dreibelbis, Coun, Federal Reserve Board of Govs; VP, Bankers Trust Co
Treas: Dorothy F. Richardson (married Solomon Adler, member Silvermaster spy ring).
Dept of Agr, Dir of War Prod Bd: Gregory Silvermaster, member Silvermaster spy cell
Lauchlin Bernard Currie, For Eco Admin; influential; Asst Dir Research/ Federal Reserve Board of Govs; member Silvermaster spy ring
Solomon Adler, US Treas Rep in China (1941-1948); member Silvermaster spy cell
Hawthorne Arey, Dir, Export-Import Bank; Dir, Inter-American Development Bank
Arthur Smithies*, Bur of Budg; Prof, Harvard Univ
Also on Conference Secretariat: William Ludwig Ullmann*, Asst to Harry Dexter White

URUGUAY
Chair: Mario La Gamma Acevedo, Fin Min; Gov, World Bank
Hugo García, Fin Attaché, Emb, WA; Gov, IMF; Gov, World Bank

VENEZUELA
Chair: Rodolfo Rojas, Banker, Treas Min
Alfonso Espinosa, Pres, Permt Fin Comm
Cristóbal Mendoza, Adv, Banco Central de Venezuela
José Joaquín Gonzáles Gorrondona hijo, Off Import Control; Dir, Banco Central de Venezuela
Manuel Pérez Guerrero, For Aff Min; Prof

YUGOSLAVIA
Chair: Vladimir Rybar, Coun, Emb, WA
Observers
DENMARK: Henrik de Kauffmann, WA Amb
Count Kai Benedict Ahlefeldt-Laurvig, Coun, WA,
LEAGUE OF NATIONS
Alexander Loveday, Dir, Eco, Fin, Transit
Dept Alternate: Ragnar Nurkse; Prof, Columbia Univ
INTL LABOUR OFFICE
Edward Joseph Phelan, Acting Dir
Alternates
Wilfred Jenks, Adv; Dir, Intl Labour Org Edward
John Riches, Chief, Eco/Stat Sec
UN COMM FOOD/ AG
Edward Twentyman, UK Del
UN RELIEF/REHAB ADMIN
Observers
Abraham Howard Feller, Gen Coun; first UN Gen Coun
* = also member US delegation
Sec Gen Intl Conf: Warren H. Kelchner Dept of St, Tech
Sec Gen: Frank Coe; Foreign Eco Admin; IMF Sec (1946-1952); member Silvermaster spy cell.
Philip Caryl Jessup, Asst Sec Gen, Prof, Columbia University; US rep to UN; Judge, Intl Court of Justice Secs of Technical Comms/ Committees
Dept of Treas Legal Staff:
Elting Arnold*, Asst Gen Coun; Dir, Foreign Assets Control; Gen Counsel, Inter-American Development Bank
Treas: Henry J. Bittermann, Assoc Prof, Ohio State Univ
Karl Richard Bopp, Federal Reserve Board; Pres, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Alice Bourneuf, Federal Reserve Board; Prof, Boston College
Treas: Richard B. Brenner,* IMF Asst Gen Coun
Malcolm Bryan,* Fst VP, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta; Pres, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (1951-1965)
Treas: Lauren Wilde Casaday, Univ of Arizona
Dept of St, Mon Aff: Eleanor Lansing Dulles
Charles Henry Dyson, Army Col; established WWII Lend Lease Program; pioneer of leveraged buyouts
Treas: Raymond French Mikesell, Prof, Univ of Oregon
Treas, Bureau of Foreign Funds Control: Orvis A. Schmidt, World Bank official
Bur of Budg: Arthur Smithies,* Prof, Harvard Univ
Treas Dept, Admin Asst to Harry Dexter White: William Ludwig Ullmann* Army Captain; on staff of US del; leading member Silvermaster spy cell (Frank Coe colleague).
Arthur P. Upgren, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis; a Dean Dartmouth College
Dept of St, Intl Fin: Chief, John Parke Young (bro of Arthur Young, Consultant to China)

http://www.centerforfinancialstability.org/bw/ Who_Was_at_Bretton_Woods? July 1, 2014 by Kurt Schuler and Andrew Rosenberg; the list of delegates and secretariat who attended the United Nations conference was compiled from Bretton Woods Transcripts and U.N. documents.

THE FEDERAL RESERVE IS A CARTEL.

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